— — nUo. -= THOREAU SOCIETY BULLETIN BULLKTIN SEVKUTY-THREE FALL, I960 THOREAU IN THE CONTEXT OF INTERNATIONAL ROMAN- TICISM by PERRY MILLER (Delivered at the Thoreau Society I960 Annual Meeting) In 1842 Emerson made a special trip to the State House in order to secure a set of reports recently published by the Commonwealth itemizing the flora and fauna of the state. Then, he says, he "set Henry Thoreau on the good track of giving an ac- count of them in the Dial, explaining to him the felicity of the subject for him as it admits of the narrative of all his boatcraft & fishcraft." The young Thoreau meekly followed his master's direc- tive — as a few years later the recalcitrant Thoreau emphatically would not. Margaret Fuller, who did not share Emerson's admiration for the rustic genius, had given up the editorship of The Dial at the beginning of 1842, and so Emerson was able to print Henry's first original piece in the July issue, under the title "The Natural History of Massachusetts." Emerson, like many later Thoreauvians, thought of Thoreau as being primarily a naturalist, a rural poet of the meadows and woods, a preternaturally accurate observer (as Emerson was not) of phenomena. Emerson was never to disabuse himself of this mis- conception, though he had momentary glimerings of bewilderment and at times almost recognized that Thoreau had a mind. But in the funeral oration for Thoreau, published in the Atlantic in 1862, he made an enduring incubus out of his own prejudice by such sentences as "He knew the country like a fox or a bird, and passed through it as freely by paths of his own." If even the sensitive Emerson, with all his chances of first-hand knowledge, held this to be the essential Thoreau, it is no wonder that later admirers, who oddly enough have often taken on some characteristics of a sentimental cult, con- strue any effort to submit him to a more critical or intellectual analysis as a denigration of their hero. Yet "The Natural History of Massachusetts" should have warned Emerson, as it still should warn us. Thoreau did indeed demonstrate his vast famil- iarity with the concrete, the specific, but he pronounced the official reports to be limited and imperfect volumes because they were merely factual. As far as they went, they were admirable, and he was the last to condemn them; yet he was obliged to add "Let us not underrate the value of a fact; it will one day flower in a truth." If Emerson paused over this sentence, he probably smiled with the pleasure of seeing an ingenious variant on one of his favorite themes. Those who like Margaret Fuller or James Russell Lowell dismissed Henry as a bungling imitator of Emerson — even, according to some of them, modelling his nose on Emerson's — would have concluded that here he was commencing his career of stealing neighbor Emerson's apples. Few if any at that time could comprehend, and today the awareness even for the most devoted student is hard to acquire, that this sentence was prophetic of Thoreau 's whole artistic endeavor. Yet under- standing dawns when we read further into the para- graph and find him saying, ominously, "He has something demoniacal in him, who can discern a law, or couple two facts." What? we should ask at this point — if we are sufficiently jolted — do facts sweetly flower into truths by and of themselves? If so then what need is there of demoniacal assist- ance? And if it is demoniacal to couple two facts, where does the demon dwell? Could it possibly be that he inhabits what Wordsworth called, and all Yankee Transcendentalists repeated after him, "our meddling intellect" which, according to the high- priest of Romantic Naturalism botanizes on grand- mother's grave and murders to dissect? The story of America's initial hostility to Wordsworth — manifested in virtually all depart- mants of the indigenous intelligence — and then of his gradual acceptance as the foremost poet of the age, is a familiar tale. Emerson himself had, in the 1820' s, been repelled by him, but in a lecture of 1838 he declared to Boston, and he was later to make the point even more emphatically in The Dial , his conversion. Whether Thoreau heard this particular lecture or not, the passage is worth repeating, because it indicates what Thoreau would start with, he never having to learn by a long process of overcoming an inherited opposition, what Emerson with great difficulty had finally grasped but on which Emerson's hold was never to be as tight as Henry's: The fame of Wordsworth is one of the most instructive facts in modern literature when it is considered how utterly hostile his genius at first seemed to the reigning taste, & I may add with what feeble poetic talents his great & steadily growing dominion has been established. More than any poet his success has been not his own but that of the Idea or principle which possessed him & which he has rarely succeeded in adequately express- ing. The last sentence is the heart of the drama. In our perspective we may indeed say that Words- worth succeeded in adequately expressing his great "Idea" only in The Prelude, which was not to be- come public property until after his death in 1850. Yet magnificent as that statement is, and funda- mental though it be for our understanding of Words- worth, it is astonishing how in 1850, when it was at long last revealed, the meaning of it had al- ready been absorbed. Thoreau does not often mention Wordsworth, but the very opening segments of the Journal show that he hardly needed to. He was already a Wordsworthian, and in that sense a child of the Romantic era. The original draft of the sentence about the fact flowering into truth was entered in December 1837, when Thoreau was twenty and just out of Harvard College. Even more revealing is a praise of Goethe in the same month which approves of his being satisfied "with giving an exact description of objects as they appear to him." This, Thoreau pontificates, is the trait to be prized, and its skill consists in the device whereby "even the reflections of the author do not interfere with his descriptions." For Thoreau had thus already completely comprehended one of the major problems of the Romantic movement — for that portion of Romanticism preoccupied with the new interpreta- tion of Nature it was the major problem — of striking and maintaining the delicate balance be- tween object and reflection, of fact and truth, of minute observation and generalized concept. There can be no doubt that Thoreau was made aware of the problem at least in part by Emerson's Nature, which with its Platonic ascent from the lowly level of "Commodity" into the intellectual vistas of "Pros- pects" sought to offer an original method for com- bining the two poles of the Romantic dilemma. But it does seem to me that from the beginning Henry possessed an insight which, though it too must be located within the larger frame-work of Romantic Naturalism, is very different from Emerson's. The contrast becomes vivid if you put Emerson's famous sentences about becoming a transparent eyeball and about the currents of universal being circulating through him alongside this entry of Thoreau 1 s, on March 3, 1839, on "The Poet": He must be something more than natural — even supernatural. Nature will not speak through but along with him. His voice will not pro- ceed from her midst, but, breathing on her, will make her the expression of his thought. He then poetizes when he takes a fact out of nature int» spirit. He speaks without refer- ence to time or place. His thought is one world, her another. He is another Nature, — Nature's brother. Kindly offices do they perform for one another. Each publishes the other's truth. It was from this duality of vision — what in Walden he would call "doubleness" and which, he would say, often made its possessor a bad neighbor — that he was able to extract from the Journal and put into "The Natural History" such contradictory assertations as, on the one hand, "Nature will bear the closest inspection; she invites us to lay our eye level with the smallest leaf, and take an in- sect view of its plain," and then, on the other, invoking in full awareness of its intellectualized nature one of the grand conceptual techniques of Biblical scholarship, this remark, "When I walk in the woods, I am reminded that a wise purveyor has been there before me; my most delicate experience is typified there." If at one And the same time Nature is closely inspected in microscopic detail and yet through the ancient system of typology makes experience intelligible, then Thoreau will have solved the Romantic riddle, have mastered the destructive Romantic Irony. Seen in such a context, his life was an unrelenting exertion to hold this precarious stance. In the end, the impossibility of sustaining it killed him. But not until, at least in Walden, he had for a breathless moment, held the two in solution, fused and yet still kept separate, he and Nature publishing each other's truth. Surely, it was a demoniacal enterprise from start to finish. This is why, it seems to me, that Thoreau can at long last be seen as a major writer of his century, not because he also happened to know boatcraft and fishcraft. When the Prelude was published, the by then great host of Wordsworth's followers found in Book XII a passage wiich they might well wish he had published in the first decade of the century (when it actu- ally was written), for it would have saved them a great deal of trouble in groping their way to what Emerson called his "Idea." In a magnificent apos- trophe to the "Soul of Nature" Wordsworth condemns anew what he held to be the vice of the eighteenth century, its lust for comparing scene with scene, pampering the taste with novelties of color and proportion, and so rendering taste insensible to the spirit of a particular place. He himself had once let his eye tyrannize over him, so that for awhile even he went about seeking for the pictur- esque, Still craving combinations of new forms,/New pleasure, wider empire for the sight,/Proud of her own endowments, and rejoiced/To lay the inner faculties asleep. let all this while he had beside him his sister Dorothy, who finally showed him how to be an en- thusiast without permitting the eye to become mistress of the heart. She welcomed what was given, and craved no more; Whate'er the scene presented to her view That was the best, to that she was attuned By her benign simplicity of life. Tet probably this passage would not have been really too helpful to such a creature as Henry because Wordsworth says that Dorothy's freedom from false notions of the picturesque in Nature was a feminine trait, that she was content to remain passively receptive because she was "wise as women are." However, we have become of late increasingly aware that in many of the most characteristic fig- ures of the Romantic movement there flourished a special type of exquisite emotional sensibility, a warmth of temperament and a disposition to let experience come to them rather than that they should go forth, sword in hand, to conquer it. Goethe's Werther is the prototype of them all, which the supreme man of action in the era, Napo- leon, read and re-read. We may think also of Constant's Adolphe, of Keats' Endymion, of the cult of Chatterton, of the personality of Robert Schumann. It would be too much to say that these creations or the creators were "feminine" in nature, but they are not robustly masculine as had been Dr. Johnson or Fielding. Each of them, whether an imagined creation or an imaginative creator, is what Thomas Mann (whose comprehension of the Romantic spirit was profound) called a "delicate child of life." In all American litera- ture Henry Thoreau is the one to whom this char- acterization perfectly applies. Let us remind our- selves, one of the earliest and most appealing of Thoreau' s poems is, of course, "Lately, alas, I knew a gentle boy." So it was not necessary that the example of Dorothy Wordsworth be put before the young Tran- scendalists in order that they should learn the inner secret of Romantic receptivity. They had such tuition as Wordsworth's lines on "Tinturn Abbey," and on the superiority of an impulse from the vernal wood over all intellectual instruction if only they would learn to come forth from science and art "with a heart/That watches and receives." Above all, they had the "Preface" to the 1800 edition of Lyrical Ballads . I do not propose to argue that Thoreau found the origin of his own "Idea" in this document, or even to insist that he read it (though the chances are all on the side that he did). Even if he never looked at it, we can find in it the most precise exposition of his ambition as a writer and his aspiration as an artist. To read the "Preface" with Thoreau in mind is to realize anew how different was the situation of the Romantic revolutionary in England (as indeed in all Europe) from that of the American. The chief thrust of Wordsworth is against the poetic diction of the Neo-Classical age, the formalized and stereotyped abstract adjectives of Pope and Johnson. His great plea is that poetry use "the real language of men." We comprehend from his fervent argument how terribly dominating Neo- Classical verse had been in literary England. Provincial America endeavored to imitate the mode — witness Freneau and the Connecticut Wits — but we never had a poet who so tyrannized over our native taste as did Pope in England. Hence when youths like Emerson felt the impulse from the vernal wood stirring in their hearts, they had to exert themselves not so much in dethroning a vested interest in technique as merely in lib- erating themselves from a culture that they now perceived was prosaic and uncreative. They simply had to disassociate themselves from what Emerson pungently called "the corpse-cold Unitar- ianism of Brattle Street and Harvard College." Or, like Henry, they could resign from all the societies they had never joined — including the Thoreau Society! Hence what meant the most to them in Words- worth 1 s "Preface" were the hints he threw out about a new kind of utterance — he was talking about poetry but his prescriptions would apply as well to prose — in which the writer would strive by might and main to look steadily at his subject. The most thrilling paragraph to the generation of Thoreau would be that wherein Wordsworth rejected as idle and unmanly the faintness of heart which, despairing of ever producing a language as fitting for expression of the passion as the real passion itself, abjectly concluded that the artist should become a translator and substitute excellencies of another kind for those which are unattainable in speech. By this specious attempt to surpass his subject, said Wordsworth, the writer condemns his material to an inferior status, and thus sly- ly exalts himself over it. No, nor fidelity to the thing, strict application to the object, no underestimation of the value of the fact — these convictions and only these will create a litera- ture "not standing upon external testimony, but carried alive into the heart by passion; truth which is its own testimony, which gives competence and confidence to the tribunal to which it appeals, and receives them from the same tribunal." As we know, Wordsworth had a long struggle ex- plaining to his contemporaries that by his phrases "the language really spoken by men" and his "look- ing steadily at the subject" he did not mean what we would term photographic reproduction of the scene or of the human face. Romantic Nature was not — for better or for worse — what the next generation would salute as "Realism." Wordsworth never taught the neophyte that a daguerreotype of Walden Pond should be esteemed more highly than a truly poetic rendition of it. He insisted that poetry have form, that it cast into metrical arrangements the materials carried alive into the heart, that passion come into literature not as animal cries or exclamations of pain, but as emotion recollected in tranquility. This meant that while no a priori concept of the picturesque, or of dignity or of excellence, should be imposed from without, that there would be an organic growth of the concept out of a fervent devotion to objective truth. The fact, in other words, would flower into a truth — if, that is, the poet could bring an adequate passion to his portraiture. Thoreau, therefore, would not be betraying or patronizing or insulting his material when he open- ly admitted that he was "for convenience putting the experience of two years into one." That was not illegitimate manipulation of reality, it was a way of being "something more than natural," of becoming "Nature's brother." By the time Thoreau graduated from Harvard, this Romantic aesthetic had been widely domesticated in America. The principle agent in reconciling a suspicious public to what had at first seemed a nonsensical or even subversive paradox was land- scape painting. In terms comprehensible to the average intelligence the Hudson River School, as historians now label them, were dramatizing Words- worth's great "Idea." Indeed, I am convinced that one immensely helpful way to deepen our appre- ciation of what Thoreau was seeking is to look closely at certain pictures of Thomas Cole (not his grandiose tableaus but his smaller scenes), Asher Durand or Thomas Doughty. Especially I would say Durand, for in him appears that union of graphic detail and organizing design which the disciple of Wordsworth ever strove to attain. An influential periodical of the time, the Knicker- bocker , said of him in 1853 — just as Walden was receiving its last revision — that "His composit- ions, while faithful to the truth of detail, com- bine a beautiful sentiment, which is felt by the observer^ and it is in this in which his true greatness consists." All the implications of this sentence, advertised by its use of "while" along with "combine", show how, even in the complacent circles which subscribed to the Knickerbocker , the Romantic "Idea" had become an orthodoxy. Hence the more opulent in these circles paid high prices for the landscapes of Durand and his fellows. We might surmise that by the same token they should have recognized in Walden a prose counterpart to their beloved painters. But, as is a matter of record, they bought the paintings but never the book. There are a hundred reasons why comfortable citizens of the Republic in 1854 would hang over their fireplace a landscape by Durand or Doughty, at the wildness of which they might gaze without perturbation, and still be horrified at the wild- ness of Walden — if indeed they so much as heard of it. Among these reasons, however, must be enumerated — or at least I shall venture to list it — the fact that Thoreau managed so radical a penetration into "the truth of detail", and then so blatant an assertion of what the Knickerbocker called "sentiment", that the "combination" — to use again the catchword of the era — seemed either grotesque or truly demoniacal. Or another way to put it is to say that Henry Thoreau took the basic premise of the Romantic Age more seriously than most romantics were able to accept. I would not unduly belabor this point, yet I would like to suggest that it indicates the peren- nial and never quite definable fascination of Walden . Thoreau spoke it as bluntly as possible in the chapter he called "Sounds," and most suc- cinctly in the first sentence. Books, he there said, are things in dialect and are provincial, and if we are confined solely to them, "we are in danger of forgetting the language which all things and events speak without metaphor, which alone is copious and standard." Consequently Walden is one of the supreme achievements of the Romantic Move- ment — or to speak accurately, of Romantic Natur- alism. Mr Shanley has proved beyond the shadow of any doubt that it was a conscious, a deliberate creation; it was not and is not some spontaneous inpulse from the vernal wood, although unfortunate- ly many of its modern champions pretend that it was. No, it is truly emotion, but emotion ostens- ibly recollected in tranquility. Yet it is assur- edly emotion, passion. There is no substitution for the original experience, there are no excell- encies of diction contrived so as to suggest an inferiority of the original to the narration. Still, it is not a mere recital, item by item, atomic moment after moment, of two years beside the pond. It is a magnificent autobiography, faithful in every detail to the setting, arising to the level of a treatise on imagination and taste, and all this without ever becoming didactic. When seen in such a perspective, it can be placed beside The Prelude/ It is the "growth of a poet's mind", and despite all its wealth of concrete imagery it is centered not upon Nature, but upon Nature's brother, the intelligence of the artist. I need hardly observe that in this century the entire philosophy of what I call Romantic Natural- ism has been attacked from innumerable sides and is generally thought to be completely discredited. In painting, the Hudson River School of represent- ation gave way to a succession of infinitely more sophisticated methods until eventually the object disappeared altogether and an artist simply paint- ed his idea. In poetry the creative impulse for several decades has been calling for a repudiation of the identification of mind with thing, for the formulation of a poetry which shall be entirely intellectual, metaphorical, artifical. That dispo- sition which in recent English writing has been expressed in Teats, in Ezra Pound, in T. S. Eliot, sees in the artist a manipulator, an inventor of symbols and images, who severs himself from Nature, who deliberately violates her, pillages her for schemes of his own devising. And even Robert Frost, who like Wordsworth insists that poetry must keep close to the language of ordinary human talk, reminds us again and again that we must avoid the pathetic fallacy of assuming any correspondence between human emotions and natural fact. If one is versed in country things, he memorably says, one does not suppose phoebes weep over the desol- ation of an abandoned farmhouse. Indeed, in one of his most powerful proclamations, "The Most of It," Frost seems to be deriding all the Henry Thoreaus of his past by describing a "he" who kept the universe alone, who wanted from Nature "some- one else additional to him" and who received in answer only the sudden eruption from the woods of a great buck, an utterly inhuman beast. If the twentieth-century judgment of the Roman- tic aesthetic is correct, then Henry Thoreau is one of its monumental failures and martyrs, along with Shelley and Novalis. Neither he nor they were able to answer the terrible question of whether, once they committed themselves to the proposition that their most delicate experience was typified in Nature, they were thereafter actually writing about Nature — about Walden Pond, for instance — or about nothing more than their delicious exper- iences. If in reality they were only projecting their emotions onto the Natural setting, if the phoebes do not weep for human miseries, then their effort to find someone additional to themselves was doomed to ghastly defeat. In this view, the career of Henry Thoreau is as tragic as that of King Lear. He too sacrificed himself needlessly to a delusion. In his first organized statement, Thoreau could say, with all the confidence that a Lear had in the love of his daughters, that when he detects a beauty in any recess of Nature he is reminded of the inexpressible privacy of a life, that he may rest content with nothing more than the sight and the sound. On the premise of that doctrine, he may properly say no more than "I am affected by the sight of the cabins of muskrats," or than "I am the wiser in respect to all knowled- ges, and better qualified for all fortunes, for knowing that there is a minnow in the brook." In the glowing confidence of these aphorisms lurks the assumption that moral law and natural law contain analogies, and that for this reason the writer may safely record facts without metaphors, since truths are bound to sprout from them. The later portions of Thoreau 's Journal , those after 185^+, with their tedious recordings of mere observations, of measure- ments, of statistics, seem to attest not only the dwindling of his vitality but the exhaustion of the theory upon which he commenced to be an author in the first place. He immolated himself on the pyre of an untenable concept of literary creation. And yet, he refuses to be consumed. Expound Walden, if you will, as a temporary and so an empty triumph of the Romantic dream, which must therefore diminish with the recession of that dream, the book refuses to go into the archeological oblivion of, shall I say? Shelly' s The Revolt of Islam . Robert Frost, while objecting with all his Yankee soul to Thoreau 's epistemology, still proclaims that with him Thoreau is a "passion." The obvious answer, or rather the easy one, is that Thoreau was a great writer, and so his pages survive in spite of changes in metaphysical fashions. But that is truly an easy, a luxurious way of salvag- ing our poet. The more difficult, but I believe the more honest and, in the final accounting, the more laudatory way is to say that the Romantic balance, or its "Idea" of combination, of fusing the fact and the idea, the specific and the gen- eral, is still a challenge to the mind and to the artist. Thoreau was both a Transcendentalist and a Natural Historian. He never surrendered on either front, though the last years of the Journal show how desperate was the effort to keep both standards aloft. He said, in the central concept- ual passage of Walden, that he wanted to drive life into a corner, to publish its meaness if it proved to be mean, but that if it should turn out to be sublime, then to give a true account of its sublimity. "The universe constantly and obedient- ly answers to our conceptions" was his resolute determination. For what more sublime a cause, even though it be a questionable thesis, can a man expend himself? A STUDY OF HENRY DAVID THOREAU— MAN AND NATURE by M. Higashiyama (Kwansei Gakuin University, Nishinomiya, Japan. ) (Editor's note: The following is an abstract of the doctoral dissertation recently completed at Kwansei Gakuin University by Prof. Higashiyama. ) The contemporary writers of Thoreau, such as Emerson, Whitman, Poe and Melville, have been studied in Japan to a certain extent, but in com- parison with those writers only a few scholars stud- ied Thoreau. The writer of this thesis tried to open a new field of studying Thoreau. In Chapter I, a historical research of Thoreau appreciation in England and the United States is done. How Thoreau has been misunderstood by people and critics in his lifetime as well as after his death is traced through periodicals. Thoreau ap- preciation took a favorable turn after World War I, when American literature became independent of Brit- ish literature and American writers became to be re- evaluated. The influence spread among the English speaking people. Thoreau' s works including the Journals were published and the Thoreau Society was founded. In Chapter II, the writer describes the geographi- cal background of New England where Thoreau lived and also explains the political, social and cultural backgrounds from the beginning to the middle of the 19th century. Though the backgrounds are roughly explained without having a close connection with the works by Thoreau, the relations of Thoreau with his friends in his private life are minutely studied. In Chapter III, the spiritual environment of Thoreau is studied. The spiritual traditions which influenced Thoreau, i.e., Puritanism in the 17th century and Rationalism in the 18th century, are studied and how they took part in the formation of Thoreau' s philosophy is cleared. The writer has been long interested in the problem of religion and American literature, but here the problem is treat- ed with Thoreau as the central figure. In Chapter IV, Thoreau 's view of nature, the cen- tral problem in Thoreau 's philosophy, is examined. The writer thinks the Journal is the most important material among Thoreau' s works, so that the view of nature is examined mainly in the Journal. From the examination, the three stages, i.e., the observation of natural phenomena, the mystic experience in which man nature become one, and God revealed in nature, are found. Also three characteristics of nature, i.e., simplicity, wildness and symbolism, are found. If the writer compared these with the views of nature in the contemporary writers, at least in Emerson, and located the position of Tho- reau 's view among them, the problem would have been more cleared. In Chapter V, how Thoreau who had the above-men- tioned view of nature was influenced by nature and his experimental life at Walden and how nature in- fluenced the formation of Thoreau 's character are studied. The interactive relations between natural phenomena and Thoreau who spent two years and two months in Walden escaping from the worldly turmoil are investigated in detail through his works. Al- though the unusual Thoreau is still criticized pro and con, he is worthy of study and reinterpretation. THOREAU IN THE PROCEEDINGSC OF THE BOSTON SOCIETY OF NATURAL HISTORY , edited by Walter Harding. ~~ Several years ago Mr. Albert Lownes of Providence, Rhode Island, called to my attention the fact that Thoreau 's letter of October 19, I860, to the Boston Society of N a tural History, reporting the killing of a Canada lynx in Carlisle, Mass., had been printed in part in the society's Proceedings . In running down that clue, I discovered that Thoreau 's name oc- curred surprisingly frequently in the society's records. I have herewith gathered these Thoreau entries together: PROCEEDINGS, III (1848-1851), 383. "Mr. Henry D. Thoreau of Concord, Mass. was elect- ed a Corresponding member. " The election occurred at the meeting of December 18, 1850, and was undoubtedly the result of Tho- reau 's having given the society an American gos- hawk in 1849. See THE CORRESPONDENCE OF HENRY DAVID THOREAU, p. 270. PROCEEDINGS, V (1854-1856), 86. "Books Received during the Quarter Ending Septem- ber 30, 1854: ... A Week on the Concord and Mer- rimack Rivers, By Henry D. Thoreau. 12 mo. Boston, 1849. "Walden; or Life in the Woods. By the Same. 12 mo. Boston, 1854. From the author." PROCEEDINGS, VI (I856-I859), 430. "Specimens of Pomotis and Esox, and of amphibi- ans, were presented by Mr. H. D. Thoreau, from Concord, Mass. Mr. Putnam was of opinion that one of the Pomotis would prove a new species." This information was reported at the meeting of December 15, 1858. PROCEEDINGS, VI (1856-1859), 431. "Donations to Museum . . . December 15. Speci- mens of young Pomotis . Esox . and frogs, from Con- cord, Mass., by H. D. Thoreau." PROCEEDINGS, VII (1859-1861), 355. "A letter was read from Mr. H. D. Thoreau, of Concord, Mass., in reference to a Canada lynx ( Lynx Canadensis ), killed in Carlisle, Mass., Sept. 9, I860)." The letter was read at the meeting of October 17, 1860, and is quoted in part in the Proceedings . The letter is reproduced in facsimile in Thoreau Society Bulletin 15 (April, 1946). PROCEEDINGS, VII (1859-61), 430. "Books Received During the Quarter ending Dec. 31, 1860. . . Transactions of the Middlesex Agri- cultural Society for 1860. 8vo. Concord, I860. From H. D. Thoreau." This volume includes Thoreau 's "An Address on the Succession of Forest Trees." PROCEEDINGS, IX (1862-1863), 70-72. A notice by C. T. Jackson of Thoreau 's death and a list of his donations to the society. These have been reprinted in Thoreau Society Bulletins 17 (October, 1946) and 68 (Summer, 1959). PROCEEDINGS, IX (1862-1863), 152. "Donations to the Museum . . . May 21, 1862. A collection of upwards of one thousand species of the plants of New England; a collection of plants of Minnesota; a large number of the nests and eggs of the birds of New England; a collection of Indian antiquities, consisting of stone implements of art and warfare, mostly from Concord, Mass., by the bequest of Mr. H. D. Thoreau." NOTES AND QUERIES: We are indebted to the following for informa- tion used in this bulletin: R.Adams, H.Adel,T. Bailey, E.Anderson,N. Caldwell, M.Campbell, R.Dic- kens, M.Ferguson,E.Freniere, H.Gottschalk,I. Hoover, J.Haynes, A.Kovar, F.Oliver, F.James, S.Sherwin, E.Schofield, and E.Wilson. Please keep the secretary informed of new Thoreauviana as it appears. 6 The cost of printing this bulletin has been cover- ed by the life memberships of Mr. Newt Caldwell, Wash- ington, D.C.; T.L.Eailey, Cleveland, Ohio; and Miss Margaret Meuttrnan, Cincinnati, Ohio. Life membership in the society is $25.00. We would also like to ac- knowledge the contributions of Paul Williams, Chatham, N.J.; James Sisson, Berkeley, Calif., and Jarvis Bar- low, Los Angeles, Calif. We are very much indebted to Mr. Samuel Wellman of Cleveland, Ohio, who has just reprinted for us Tho- reau Society Bulletins 12 and 13 that have long been out of print. They are now thus available from the secretary for 25£ each. Bulletins 1-9 are available together in a reprint for 50£. All other bulletins, except 26, 44, 49, 51, 55, and 59 which have just re- cently gone out of print, are available from the sec- retary for 25£ each. Booklets 1, 2, and 4 sre out of print, but Booklets 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10, 14, and 15 are available at 25£ each, and Booklets 9, 11, 12, and 13 at $1.00 each. Emil A. Freniere is compiling "A Thoreau Log: 1837- 1847," similar to the Jay Leyda logs on Melville and Emily Dickinson, as his doctoral dissertation at Perm. State University. The Smithsonian Institution is currently circulating to museums over the country a collection of 76 color photographs by Eliot Porter, each accompanied by a quotation from Thoreau. James A. Michener's "In Defense of Beatniks," PHILA- DELPHIA BULLETIN, Aug. 7, I960, describes Thoreau as an early beatnik. Anton Kovar (9 Court St., Arlington, Mass.) asks where the following quotation can be found in Thoreau: "Woe be to the generation that lets any higher faculty in its midst go unemployed." Can anyone help? Howard Zahniser of Washington, D.C., writes, "The first paragraph quoted on page 124 of the "Lntiroductio to CONSCIOUSNESS IN CONCORD by Perry Miller is on page 477^ Vol. II of Thoreau' s JOURNAL. This is part of the Journal for September 7, 1851. The two para- graphs are almost identical in language, as they in- deed are in content. Professor Miller was under the impression that this had 'never been published.' Readers who will again peruse Professor Miller's dis- cussion and quotation on pages 123 and 125 of CON- SCIOUSNESS IN CONCORD will find interesting both the 1906 publication of this paragraph and also its in- clusion in the entry for September 7, 1851, the day's journal that likewise included the sentence, 'Nothing is so much to be feared as fear, ' and the complaint, 'I cannot easily buy a blank-book to write thoughts in; they are all ruled for dollars and cents. 1 " Dr. John Robinson Pierce, inventor of the balloon satelite "Echo I," when interviewed after its suc- cessful launching on Aug. 13, I960, said, "It was not necessary to copy the Russians in everything. Maybe we are listening to another drummer," and point- ed out his reference was to the passage in WALDEN. The comic strip "Little Orphan Annie" for Sept. 11, I960, quotes Thoreau 's "I would rather sit on a pump- kin and have it all to myself than be crowded on a velvet cushion." Franklin Willard Hamilton is working on a disserta- tion on "Henry David Thoreau 's Ideas for Self -Educa- tion of the Individual, as Expressed in His Journal, 1837-1862" for the Dept. of Education of the Univer- sity of Kansas. John F. Jacques is working on a dissertation on "Thoreau's THE MAINE WOODS" at Columbia University. An advertisement in the NEW YORK TIMES for August 28, I960, by the Julie Research Laboratories, asking for electronic engineers, states that they a re look- ing for one who "Marches to a different drumbeat (Thoreau)." As this bulletin goes to press, it has just been announced that Thoreau has been elected to the New York University Hall of Fame, along with Thomas Ed- ison and Edward MacDowell. He received 83 votes out of a possible 142. Necessary for election: 72. We hope to have more details in our next bulletin. Mrs. Ruth E. Ballenger, Manuscripts Librarian of the Rutherford B. Hayes Library in Fremont, Ohio, has called our attention to the following entry in the diary of President Hayes for April 2, 1885: Went with Lucy to church. — From there I went to the High School Building & heard Prof. Fin- ley, of Akrcn read a fair paper on Thoreau. T. was a man of gifts and culture. Si -pie, sincere, and brave. But he failed in his duties. He was not a good citizen, not a patriot; 'never married, never went To church, never voted, and never paid a tax' said Prof. F. To this I added, 'and it is a satisfaction that he did go to jail' J as he ought. This will do as a -joke. Mrs. Ballenger also quotes from a letter to Hayes from Alexis Cope, Secretary of the Board of Trustees, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, on December 9, 1892: I enclose the extr=ct from Thoreau's "Walden" which I spoke of. By the way, if you have not read the book I think many things in it will interest you. To me he is a most refreshing Pajon, and his books a constant refreshment in leisure hours. I would send you some of them but my son has packed them up and carried fehmm away with him. Both of these quotations are from manuscripts in the Futherford B. Hayes Library in Freemont, Ohio. Four pacifists have recently been picketing the ri "Polaris nuclear submarines in Groton, Conn. They have named the rowboat in which they picket the "Henry David Thoreau." Sean 0'Casey in "Out, Damned Spot" in the May, 1960 THEATRE ARTS, says, "There are other great minds in the fie Id, too. . . Thoreau, who could see God's face shining from a duck pond, a face of peace, or a face agitated within the whirl of a millrsce." According to the CHRISTIAN 'SCIENCE MONITOR for Oct. 5, I960, when the Crown Prince and Crown Prin- cess of Japan recently visited the High School of Music and Art in New York City, "They listened with profound attention to a discussion of Thoreau in an English class." When the CHICAGO TRIBUNE MAGAZINE OF BOOKS asked a number of prominent people to name their favorite books, the following included WALDEN on their list: Robert Traver (author of ANATOMY OF MURDER 0), S.J. Perelman, the humorist; and Dr. Preston Bradley, pastor of the Peoples Church of Chicago. Remarkable Coincidence Department : "As if you could kill time without injuring eternity."— Thoreau, WALDEN (I854). "In this place, instead of killing time we have to kill eternity."— G.B.Shaw, MAN AND SUPER- MAN, (New York: Brentano, 1903, p. 113). Robert Musser Brown's new novel, BROTHER, WHICH DRUMMER? (New York, Harcourt, I960), apparently de- rives its title from the famous lines in WALDEN. Albert E. Lownes of Providence, R.I., calls to our attention a copy of THE MAINE WOODS in his possession, dated 1864, but labeled "Second Edition," Since the first edition is also dated 1864, it would seem to indicate that the first edition had sold out almost immediately. An article in the BOSTON HOME JOURNAL for Jan. 17, 1903 by Henry Waterman, entitled "Concord's Famous Son," states that when Thoreau was a student at Har- vard, he first lived in 20 Hollis, then 31, then 32, and finally 23. They give no indication as to the source of their information. But this is the first time I have seen his dormitory room numbers given so specifically. Can anyone help authenticate this data? ADDITIONS TO THE THOREAU BIBLIOGRAPHY WH Adams, Raymond. "Thoreau — Surveyor in the Survey Course." EMERSON SOCIETY QUARTERLY, XVIII (i960), 2-3. An essay in a symposium on teaching Thoreau in college classes. Bode, Carl. "Thoreau: The Double Negative" in THE YOUNG REBEL IN AMERICAN LITERATURE. New York: Prae- ger, I960. One of a series of lectures delivered at the American Embassy in London. "Thoreau is nev- er merily negative. He is eager to replace the val- ues he dislikes with nobler ones." (pp. 3-22). Broderick, John C. "Teaching Thoreau." ESQ,XVIII (I960), 3-5. Another essay in the symposium. Cameron, Kenneth Walter. "Thoreau and John Evelyn." ESQ, XVIII (I960), 35. On the source of a Thoreau quotation from Evelyn. . "Two Pages of Thoreau' s Notes for CAPE COD." ESQ, XIX (I960), 38-9. Notes on a newly discover- ed manuscript of Thoreau. . "Thoreau in the Papers of Nathan Brooks and Abel Moore." ESQ, XIX (i960), 42-5. Inventory of some MSS in the Concord Free Public Library. . "Thoreau in the Memoirs of the Concord Social Circle." ESQ (XIX), 45-6. Reprints of reminiscences of Thoreau' s neighbors. . "Historical Notes on the Concord Academy." ESQ, (XIX), 46-51. Reprints various newspaper notices in- cluding some of Thoreau' s teaching there. Chase, Mary Ellen. THE LOVELY AMBITION. New York: Norton, i960. 288pp. $3.95. A delightful novel a- bout an English clergyman who worships Thoreau and eventually comes to America to live. A long passage (pp. 63-6) discusses his love of Thoreau in particu- lar. Any Thoreauvian should surely enjoy this novel. Cobb, Robert P. "Thoreau and 'the Wild.'" ESQ, XVIII (I960), 5-7. Another essay in the symposium. Cook, Reginald L. "Teaching Thoreau at Middlebury." ESQ, XVIII (I960), 7-9. More of the same. Cooke, George Willis. "Emerson and Thoreau in the In- dex to THE DIAL." ESQ, XVIII (I960), 44-9. Reprinted from the Rowfant Club edition of THE DIAL. Davidson, Frank. "A Reading of WALDEN." ESQ, XVIII (I960), 9-11. Part of the symposium. Evans, Robert. "Blazing a Trail with Thoreau." BOS- TON GLOBE. Sept. 11,12,13,14,15,16,17, I960. A series of articles telling of Evans' retracing of Thoreau 's WEEK journey. Emerson, Ralph Waldo. THE JOURNALS AND MISCELLANEOUS NOTEBOOKS. Vol. I. Edited by William Gilman 66 al. Cambridge: Harvard, I960. 430pp. $10. The first volume of a projected 16 volume definitive edition of E's journals and notebooks. Not only do they in- clude many important items omitted from the earlier 10 volume edition, but they also correct many mis- readings. This first volume covers the years 1819- 1822, so there is little directly about Thoreau in it. But nonetheless it is decidedly important for the Thoreau scholar because it gives us so many new insights into his closest friend. The editorial work is a marvel to behold. Never have we seen an edition that so clearly and definitively represents a manu- script with all its cancellations, interlineations, and so on. It is a model of editorial practice. It is to be hoped that scholars and libraries will do 7 their best to encourr-ge the efforts of the editor- ial board and the publishers to complete this pro- ject. Emans, Elaine V. "Thought for Thoreau." CHRISTIAN SCIENCE MONITOR. Oct. 29, I960. A poem. Feidelson, Charles Jr. "Three Views of the Human Person: THE SCARLET LETTER, WALDEN, and THE RED BADGE OF COURAGE." In REPORTS AMD SPEECHES OF THE SIXTH YALE CONFERENCE ON THE TEACHING OF ENGLISH. Yale University: Master of Arts in Teaching Pro- gram. I960. $1.00. pp. 47-52. Golden, Harry. "We All Need a Bit of Solitude." CAROLINA ISRAELITE, XVIII (Kay-June, I960), 20. Thoreau teaches us the values of loneliness. Harding, Walter. A THOREAU HANDBOOK. Review. COLLEGE & RESEARCH LIBRARIES, XXI (July, I960), 282. . THOREAU: MAN OF CONCORD. New York: Holt, Rinehart, 4 Winston, I960. 251pp. *2.00. A col- lection of nearly 100 reminiscences of Thoreau, including some hitherto unpublished. . The Same. Review. CONCORD JOURNAL. Nov. 10, i960. . "On Teaching WALDEN." ESQ, XVITI (i960), 11-12. Part cf symposium. Kern, Alexander. "Introducing Thoreau as Artist and Man." ESQ, XVIII (I960), 12-14. The same. Kleine, Don W. "Civil Disobedience: The Way to Walden." MODERN LANGUAGE NOTES, LXXV (April, i960) 297-304. The essay and the book are consistent in philosophy. Kurtz, Kenneth. "Thoreau and Individualism Today." ESQ, XVIII (I960), 14-15. Part of symposium. Leighton, Caroline C. A SWISS THOREAU. Boston, 1890. A pamphlet comparing Thoreau with Amiel. Lombardo, Agostino. "L'arte di Henry David Thoreau" BELFAG0R, XIV (Nov. 30, 1959), 674-685. Ludwig, Jack. "Confusions: Thoreau in California." NOBLE SAVAGE, I (i960), 203-248. An hilarious short story about a beatnik worshiper of Thoreau. Maclean, Hugh N. "The Pattern of WALDEN." THE ELENSIS OF CHI OMEGA, LXII (Kay, I960), 235-9. Marx, Leo. "Walden as Transcendental Pastoral." ESQ, XVIII (I960), 16-17. Part of symposium. Moiles, Bill. "Thoreau Put No Faith in Groundhog Day." WORCESTER TELEGRAM. Feb. 2, I960. On T. and woodchucks. "Thoreau' s Voice Still Stirs His Country- men." WORCESTER TELEGRAM. On current popularity of Thoreau. Munoz, Vladimir. "En Filosofo de Walden." CENIT, X (April, I960), 2989-2994. An extended discus- sion of Thoreau' s thought. . "Thoreau y Hudson." V0LUNTAD (Montevideo, Uruguay), IV (May, I960). Oehser, Paul. "Thoreau: Exponent of Silence." CON- CORD JOURNAL. July 14, I960. The I960 presiden- tial address. Nair, Pyarelal. THOREAU, TOLSTOY AND GANDHI JI. Calcutta: A.K.Banerji, 1958. Pederson, Lee A. "La Fuente del Lema de Thoreau en Desobediencia Civil." V0LUNTAD, IV (May, i960). Trans, from TSB into Spanish by V. Munoz. Poole, Lynn. "Henry Thoreau Wanted to Live." TO- LEDO BLADE. July 3, I960. On Thoreau at Walden. Apparently syndicated in many newspapers. Rowlands, John J. SPINDRIFT. New York: Norton, I960. Includes comments on Tudor 's cutting of the ice on Walden Pond in 1845 (pp. 70-2) and on T's visit to Cape Cod (pp. 202-4). Schiller, Andrew. "Thoreau in the Undergraduate Survey Course." ESQ, XVIII (i960), 17-19. Part of the symposium. Sergeant, Elizabeth Shepley. ROBERT FROST: THE TRIAL BY EXISTENCE. New York: Holt, I960. Many comments on Frost's interest in Thoreau. Seybold, Ethel. "Thoreau for Everyone." ESQ, XVII I (I960), 19-21. In the symposium. Sherwin, J.Stephen St Richard C. Reynolds. A WORD INDEX TO WALDEN WITH TEXTUAL NOTES. Charlottesvil- le: Univ. of Va. Press, I960. 165pp. $8.00. Thoreau scholars have long felt the need for a con- cordance of WALDEN and at last the need is filled. Here is an index of every single word in the book, giving the exact location as to page and line of each occurence except for the 122 words that occur more frequently than 100 times each — and for these there is a word count. But the book has other uses as well as those of a concordance. New insight is given into Thoreau' s vocabulary and its patterns of usage. And so carefully have the authors studied word variants that they have provided a number of new insights into Thoreau' s exact meaning. We hope in a future issue of our bulletin to persuade them to present some of their new findings. Meanwhile all students of WALDEN will find this volume a tre- mendously handy reference work. . The Same. Reviews. ROCHESTER TIKES-UNION, Nov. 7, I960. BUFFALO EVENING NEWS. Sept. 24,1960. Shepard, Odell. "Approaching Thoreau Through Mod- ern Scholarship." ESQ, XVIII (i960), 23-26. More in the symposium. Shuman, R. Baird. "Thoreau 's Passage on the 'Fro- zen-Thawed' Apple." ESQ,XVIII (i960), 34-5. A hitherto unknown 1-page draft of a portion of "Wild Apples" reveals some minor word variations. Sibley, Celestine. "Thoreau Spoiled Work Plans at Cabin." BUFFALO COURIER EXPRESS. July ?, I960. T. is used to justify loafing on a vacation. Smith, Edwin S. "A Thoreau for Today, II" MAINSTREAM XIII (May, I960), 42-55. Second part of an extend- ed discussion of Thoreau's significance today. SPRINGFIELD REPUBLICAN. "Sophia Thoreau."' ESQ, XVIII (I960), 42. Reprinting of obituary of 1876. Strauch, Carl F. "The Essential Romanticism of Tho- reau's WALDEN." ESQ, XVIII (i960), 21-23. Another essay in the symposium. Teale, Edwin Way. "Thoreau y el Reinado del Tierapo" EL PLATA (Montevideo, Uruguay). June 28,1959. Tho- reau Society 1953 presidential address trans, into Spanish by V. Munoz. Urzidil, Johannes. "Henry David Thoreau oder Natur und Freideit." CASTRUM PEREGRINI, XXX (1956), 13-31. Thoreau, H e nry David. CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE AND WALDEN: SELECTIONS. Chicago: Great Books Foundation, 1954. 92pp. . DES0BEIR: TRADUIT DE L' ANGLAIS AVEC UN AVANT- PR0P0S PAR LEON BAZALGETTE. Paris: Rieder, 1921. Includes "Life without Principle," "Civil Disobed- ience," "Slavery in Massachusetts," etc. . ESCLAVITUD EN MASSACHUSETTS. Montevideo, Uruguay: Ediciones Voluntad, I960. "Slavery in Mass- achusetts" trans, in Spanish by Vladimir Munoz, with an intoduction by Walter Harding. . ESCRIT0S SSLECT0S S0BRE NATURALELA & LIBER- TAD. Buenos Aires, I960. A translation into Span- ish of Oscar Cargill's H.D.T. : SELECTED WRITINGS ON NATURE AND LIBERTY. . "Of Books and Their Titles." Edited by R. Baird Shuman. ESQ, XVIII (I960), 26-34. First ac- curate transcription of one of T's college essays with a facsimile of the MS. . OPERA SCELTE. Venezia: Neri-Pozza. 195? Trans, into Italian by Piero Sanavio. xlv, 642pp. . THOREAU ON MAN AND NATURE. Edited by A. Volkman. Review. VOLUNTAD. Aug. I960. . THOREAU-CHE SHRAMAJIVAN. Pavnar (Wardha) : Paramdham Vidyapith, 1957. (2nded.). 11,86. "E- conomy" from WALDEN trans, into Hindu by Vaman J. Kunte. . "To Edith." Edited by Kenneth W. Cameron. ESQ, XVIII (I960), 40-41. First publication of a hitherto unknown poem by Thoreau. . UBER DIE FREUNDSCHAFT. ESSAY. DIE UEBERTR1- GUNG AUS DEM ENGLISBHEN BES0RGTE PAUL PATTL0CK. DAS NACHW0RT SCHRIEB ERICH HOCK. Aschaff enburg: P. Pattlock, 1946. 55PP. Trans, of "Friendship." . "Vida sin Principios." VOLUNTAD, IV (May, I960). Trans, of "Life without Principle" into Spanish by V. Munoz. . WALDEN, OR LIFE IN THE WOODS. Preface by Joseph Wood Krutch. New York: Libra Collection, I960. 297pp. $13.75. One of the most beautiful editions of WALDEN ever published. Large pages; large, clear print; illustrated with 24 woodcuts from the ancient Chinese drawing manuals of the Mustard Seeds Garden studio — woodcuts that mirror exactly the strength s nd simplicity and beauty of the text itself; bound in a beautiful, rough-finish green cloth, and doubly boxed. It is hard to imag- ine a more beautifully conceived edition. The pre- face by Mr. Krutch is brief, but very much to the point. Scholars however will be disturbed by the fact that the "complemental verses" at the end of the first chapter have been omitted and that the text itself perpetuates sone of the errors that have crept into printings since the first edition. The Same. Trans, into Spanish by J.Garate. Review. VOLUNTAD. Sept. I960. . The Same. Edited with n^tes by H. Demizu. Tokyo: Kairyudo, 19//. 177pp. Selections. . A WRITER'S JOURNAL. Selected and edited with an introduction by Laurence Stalpleton. New York: Dover, I960. 234pp. $1.55. An anthology of selections from Thoreau's JOURNAL with particular emphasis upon his comments on writing as an art and with several long sequences not hitherto avail- able in anything but the full JOURNAL. A percep- tive introduction concentrating on Thoreau's inter- est in "relatedness" — the tieing together of the phenomena of the universe. Wheeler, Ruth R. "Ts?ac Hecker and Concord." CONCORD JOURNAL. May 5, I960. Including his stay with the Thoreau s. Whicher, Stephen. "An Appointment in American Lit- erature" COLLEGE ENGLISH, XXI (May, i960), 466-9. Includes some pleasant spoofs on current Thoreau scholarship. White, William. "Three Unpublished Thoreau Letters" NEW ENGLAND QUARTERLY, XXXIII (Sept. I960), 372-4. Prints fuller texts of the letters of Sept. 25, 1843 from Margaret Fuller; of April 13, 1855 and Aug. 8, 1855 to George William Curtis. WORCESTER EVENING GAZETTE. "Ownership of Thoreau House Changes." Feb. 2, I960. Photograph of Wor- cester house where Thoreau often visited Theo Brown. The Thoreau Society Inc. is an informal organiza- tion of students and followers of Henry David Tho- reau. Officers of the society are Prof. Carl Bode, College Park, Md. ; Mrs. Gladys Hosraer, Concord, Mass. vice-president; and V/alter Harding, secretary-treas- urer. Annual membership is two dollars; life mem- bership, twenty-five dollars. Communications con- cerning membership or publications should be address- ed to the secretary: Walter Harding State University College of Education Geneseo, New York.